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New Jersey

9:2-4  Custody of child; rights of both parents considered.


9:2-4.  The Legislature finds and declares that it is in the public policy of this State to assure minor children of frequent and continuing contact with both parents after the parents have separated or dissolved their marriage and that it is in the public interest to encourage parents to share the rights and responsibilities of child rearing in order to effect this policy.
In any proceeding involving the custody of a minor child, the rights of both parents shall be equal and the court shall enter an order which may include:
a. Joint custody of a minor child to both parents, which is comprised of legal custody or physical custody which shall include: (1) provisions for residential arrangements so that a child shall reside either solely with one parent or alternatively with each parent in accordance with the needs of the parents and the child; and (2) provisions for consultation between the parents in making major decisions regarding the child's health, education and general welfare;
b.Sole custody to one parent with appropriate parenting time for the noncustodial parent; or
c.Any other custody arrangement as the court may determine to be in the best interests of the child.
In making an award of custody , the court shall consider but not be limited to the following factors: the parents' ability to agree, communicate and cooperate in matters relating to the child; the parents' willingness to accept custody and any history of unwillingness to allow parenting time not based on substantiated abuse; the interaction and relationship of the child with its parents and siblings; the history of domestic violence, if any; the safety of the child and the safety of either parent from physical abuse by the other parent; the preference of the child when of sufficient age and capacity to reason so as to form an intelligent decision; the needs of the child; the stability of the home environment offered; the quality and continuity of the child's education; the fitness of the parents; the geographical proximity of the parents' homes; the extent and quality of the time spent with the child prior to or subsequent to the separation; the parents' employment responsibilities; and the age and number of the children. A parent shall not be deemed unfit unless the parents' conduct has a substantial adverse effect on the child.
The court, for good cause and upon its own motion, may appoint a guardian ad litem or an attorney or both to represent the minor child's interests.  The court shall have the authority to award a counsel fee to the guardian ad litem and the attorney and to assess that cost between the parties to the litigation.
d.The court shall order any custody arrangement which is agreed to by both parents unless it is contrary to the best interests of the child.
e.In any case in which the parents cannot agree to a custody arrangement, the court may require each parent to submit a custody plan which the court shall consider in awarding custody .
f.The court shall specifically place on the record the factors which justify any custody arrangement not agreed to by both parents.

Amended 1948, c.321, ss.4,11; 1974, c.143; 1990, c.26, s.2; 1997, c.299, s.9.

2A:34-12.3. "Parent's Education program"
3. a.  There is hereby established a mandatory education program to be known as the "Parents' Education Program."

b.The program shall be designed to assist and advise divorced parents on issues concerning divorce , separation and custody . The program shall be made available twice a month.  The program shall be administered by the Administrative Office of the Courts. The Assignment Judge shall appoint appropriate staff to act as a program representative or representatives, as necessary, for each county.

c.The purpose of the program shall be to promote cooperation between the parties and to assist parents in resolving issues which may arise during the divorce or separation process, including, but not limited to:

(1)Understanding the legal process and cost of divorce or separation, including arbitration and mediation;

(2)Understanding the financial responsibilities for the children;

(3)Understanding the interaction between parent and child, the family relationship and any other areas of adjustment and concern during the process of divorce or separation;

(4)Understanding how children react to divorce or separation, how to spot problems, what to tell them about divorce or separation, how to keep communication open and how to answer questions and concerns the children may have about the process;

(5)Understanding how parents can help their children during the divorce or separation, specific strategies, ideas, tools, and resources for assistance;

(6)Understanding how parents can help children after the divorce or separation and how to deal with new family structures and different sets of rules; and

(7)Understanding that cooperation may sometimes be inappropriate in cases of domestic violence.


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